K-Means is one of the simplest unsupervised clustering algorithm which is used to cluster our data into K number of clusters. The algorithm iteratively assigns the data points to one of the K clusters based on how near the point is to the cluster centroid. The result of K-Means algorithm is:

- K number of cluster centroids
- Data points classified into the clusters

#### Applications:

K-Means can be used for any type of grouping where data has not been explicitly labeled. Some of the real world examples are given below:

- Image Segmentation
- Chromosome segmentation
- News Comments Clustering
- Grouping inventory by sales activity
- Clustering animals
- Bots and Anomaly Detection

**Outline of the algorithm:**

Assuming we have input data points x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},…,x_{n} and value of **K **(the number of clusters needed). We follow the below procedure:

- Pick K points as the initial centroids from the dataset, either randomly or the first K.
- Find the Euclidean distance of each point in the dataset with the identified K points (cluster centroids).
- Assign each data point to the closest centroid using the distance found in the previous step.
- Find the new centroid by taking the average of the points in each cluster group.
- Repeat 2 to 4 for a fixed number of iteration or till the centroids don’t change.

###### Euclidean Distance between two points in space:

If **p** = (*p*_{1}, *p*_{2}) and **q** = (*q*_{1}, *q*_{2}) then the distance is given by

**Implementation:**

def euclidean_distance(point1, point2): return math.sqrt((point1[0]-point2[0])**2 + (point1[1]-point2[1])**2)

###### Assigning each point to the nearest cluster:

If each cluster centroid is denoted by *c _{i}, *then each data point x is assigned to a cluster based on

here* dist()* is the euclidean distance

**Implementation:**

#find the distance between the points and the centroids for point in data: distances = [] for index in self.centroids: distances.append(self.euclidean_distance(point,self.centroids[index])) #find which cluster the datapoint belongs to by finding the minimum #ex: if distances are 2.03,1.04,5.6,1.05 then point belongs to cluster 1 (zero index) cluster_index = distances.index(min(distances)) self.classes[cluster_index].append(point)

###### Finding the new centroid from the clustered group of points:

S_{i} is the set of all points assigned to the *ith* cluster.

**Implementation:**

#find new centroid by taking the centroid of the points in the cluster class for cluster_index in self.classes: self.centroids[cluster_index] = np.average(self.classes[cluster_index], axis = 0)

#### K-Means full implementation

The above program creates a sample set for 4 clusters and then performs K-Means on it

#### K-Means implementation using python sklearn:

from sklearn.cluster import KMeans import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from sklearn.datasets.samples_generator import make_blobs #generate dummy cluster datasets K = 4 X, y_true = make_blobs(n_samples=300, centers=K, cluster_std=0.60, random_state=0) k_means = KMeans(K) k_means.fit(X) cluster_centres = k_means.cluster_centers_ y_kmeans = k_means.predict(X) plt.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], c=y_kmeans, s=50, cmap='viridis') for centroid in cluster_centres: plt.scatter(centroid[0], centroid[1], s=300, c='black', alpha=0.5)

Output from the above program:

The output of the clustering we wrote from scratch is similar to the one we get by using the sklearn library.

#### Choosing Initial centroids

In our implementation we chose the first 4 points as our initial cluster centroids which may give slightly different centroids each time the program is run on random dataset. We can also use the K-means++ method to choose our initial centroids. k-means++ was proposed in 2007 by Arthur and Vassilvitskii. This algorithm comes with a theoretical guarantee to find a solution that is O(log k) competitive to the optimal k-means solution. Sklearn KMeans class uses kmeans++ as the default method for seeding the algorithm.