- The Law of Cosines formula
- Vector Dot product formula

## Law of Cosines

For any given triangle ABC with sides AB, BC and AC, the angle formed by the lines AB and BC is given by the formula:

Here is how we can derive that formula:

The same can be extended for other angles as well.

Now, if we were given 3 points on a cartesian plane, we can find the distance between any two points using the Euclidean distance formula:

So, to find the angle between three points A*(x1,y1),* B*(x2,y2)* and C*(x3,y3), *our formula becomes:

In Python we can represent the above formula using the code:

import numpy as np import math def angle_between_three_points(pointA, pointB, pointC): x1x2s = math.pow((pointA[0] - pointB[0]),2) x1x3s = math.pow((pointA[0] - pointC[0]),2) x2x3s = math.pow((pointB[0] - pointC[0]),2) y1y2s = math.pow((pointA[1] - pointB[1]),2) y1y3s = math.pow((pointA[1] - pointC[1]),2) y2y3s = math.pow((pointB[1] - pointC[1]),2) cosine_angle = np.arccos((x1x2s + y1y2s + x2x3s + y2y3s - x1x3s - y1y3s)/(2*math.sqrt(x1x2s + y1y2s)*math.sqrt(x2x3s + y2y3s))) return np.degrees(cosine_angle) A = np.array([2,4]) B = np.array([8,7]) C = np.array([9,1]) print("Angle between points:", angle_between_three_points(A,B,C)) # gives 72.89 A = np.array([0,0]) B = np.array([0,4]) C = np.array([4,0]) print("Angle between points:", angle_between_three_points(A,B,C)) # gives 45.0

## Vector Dot Product

The three points can also be represented as a vector as shown below.

where,

The scalar product or the dot product of two vectors is represented by the formula:

where || * || is the magnitude of the vector and θ is the angle made by the two vectors.

From the above formula we can represent the angle using the formula:

In Python we can represent the above formula using the code:

def angle_between_three_points(pointA, pointB, pointC): BA = pointA - pointB BC = pointC - pointB try: cosine_angle = np.dot(BA, BC) / (np.linalg.norm(BA) * np.linalg.norm(BC)) angle = np.arccos(cosine_angle) except: print("exc") raise Exception('invalid cosine') return np.degrees(angle)

The above is code from my post where I talked about finding the collinearity of three points on a plane using the angle formed by the points.

References: